This page contains publications by the Open Oximetry Project as well a living compilation of literature related to oximeter performance and skin pigment (bottom).

The Open Oximetry Project is disseminating our work by publishing protocols, device performance summaries, raw data (coming soon), and scientific manuscripts.  All materials will be published as open access. We are also in the process of creating a study network and a living literature review on pulse oximetry. If you are interested in joining the study network, contributing your data to the open data repository, or suggesting a publication for inclusion in the literature review, then please be in touch.

Below are publications by the Open Oximetry Project. We anticipate multiple publications coming soon in the third and fourth quarter of 2022.

View a complete list of publications from The Hypoxia Lab

Pulse Oximeter Performance, Racial Inequity, and the Work Ahead

Olubunmi E OkunlolaMichael S LipnickPaul B BatchelderMichael BernsteinJohn R FeinerPhilip E Bickler 

Respiratory Care. 2022 Feb;67(2):252-257. doi: 10.4187/respcare.09795. Epub 2021 Nov 12.



It has long been known that many pulse oximeters function less accurately in patients with darker skin. Reasons for this observation are incompletely characterized and potentially enabled by limitations in existing regulatory oversight. Based on decades of experience and unpublished data, we believe it is feasible to fully characterize, in the public domain, the factors that contribute to missing clinically important hypoxemia in patients with darkly pigmented skin. Here we propose 5 priority areas of inquiry for the research community and actionable changes to current regulations that will help improve oximeter accuracy. We propose that leading regulatory agencies should immediately modify standards for measuring accuracy and precision of oximeter performance, analyzing and reporting performance outliers, diversifying study subject pools, thoughtfully defining skin pigmentation, reporting data transparently, and accounting for performance during low-perfusion states. These changes will help reduce bias in pulse oximeter performance and improve access to safe oximeters.

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Literature Compilation

This living literature review was created by multiple collaborators. If you think we missed something, please contact us.

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